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2006-ban az MSZP egyik ismert és művelt személyisége kiküldte Brüsszelbe azt az írást! A hazai államhatalom akkori rokonai nem is foglalkoztak vele, nem azért vannak ők Brüsszelben, csak a nagy fizetésekért és a költségtérítésekért.
Olyan szakértők képviselték a magyar gazdaság és társadalom érdekeit, akik még az EU Alapokmányával sem lehettek tisztában, különben értették volna, miről van szó
Igaz, minden népnek olyan kormánya van, amilyet megérdemel, de ennél jobbat érdemelne ez az ország már több évtizede. Úgy látszik a szabály a kiküldött rokonokra, haverokra is érvényes. Ezt érdemeljük? Műveletlen és felelőtlen hozzáállást! Műveletlen és felelőtlen emberek nem alkalmasak tisztességes együttműködésre sem itthon, sem az EU színterein. Akárcsak nemzetünk nagyjaiból csak a nemzet jelző hordozott tartalmat.Felelősséget semmit az ország sorsa iránt.


A Proposal — For the research and development on human capital indicators, the related measurement methods and their application

Educational guidelines of the EU „White Book”

A Proposal

For the research and development on human capital indicators, the related measurement methods and their application


The book contains analysis and guidelines for education and training. It is an amendment of the White Book entitled «Imcrease, competitiveness and employment», in which it is stated that non-financial investments, especially those realized in the education and in research are important for Europe.

Chapter 5 of the White Book, talks about the economic value of the human capital and the necessity of its integration (emancipation) among the production factors. There are only a few research performed and reported on that purpose, which could be used in an operational manner. Although the problem described in chapter 5 has been existed for a long time in scholarly research, no results have provided operational solution so that „we can ensure similar evaluation for the capital investments and the investments realized in the educational sphere”.

Related guidelines of the EU, requirement of modelling of the human capital indicators

„Capital investment and educational investment shall receive equal evaluation in legal and taxation terms”. It is clear in the White Book, that investments in teaching and learning different skills is a highly important factor in terms of employment and competitiveness.

In order to make suggestions about this issue two factors need to be analyzed:

  1. The importance of investment in human capital and the exact method and technique of its measurement and and indicators,
  2. The nature of educational spendings, in terms of book keeping and financial issues”. [1]

„To achieve this, a thotough investigation is needed about the how the current financial rules and regulations define the educational investment of the corporations, private persons and the state.

The members of the EU and the partners participating in the social interest reconciliation should analyze the legal consequences of qualifying educational corporate expenses as investments.

Experiences should be gathered, at community level, aboout how can corporations and private persons manage their educational expenses as investments.

It should be popularized that education is investment and not part of the operational expenses of a corporation.

Cooperation among the representatives of legislative power of the member countries in charge of establishing financial policies should be encouraged in order to modify the attitude toward educational expenses.

It is necessary to close the gap between the financial evaluation of investments into intellectual properies and investments into education and research. 

It is about seeking solutions bearing strategic importance in terms of economics and sociolog, which aim at transforming the taxation practices existing for more than a hundred years.

 „Overall, it can be stated that this era of changes ensures a historic opportunity for the European Union. The reason is that such a significant reform, which does not require agressive social changes, can be realized in an era full of radical changes”.[2]

Scientific and research background of the human capital guidelines of the EU White Book.

The Nobel Prize of Theodore Schultze represented, from the 1970’s, the recognition by the political and economical professionals of the theory that the expenses of education are equal to the expenses of the human investments. Efforts have been made in different research institutions of the world to model the indicators of efficiency and return on investment of the human capital investments. For the time being, however, these effotrs broght little chances of application of these indicators in the market economy. (We only mention a few representations of these research efforts in foot-notes)[3]

Scholarly research has focused on the social expenses of education in terms of:

  1. The expenses and profits of investment decisions,
  2. Its individual and corporate return,
  3. Its impact on the market balance,
  4. The increase of productivity,
  5. The maximalization of individual and corporate profit,
  6. The variability of wages, benefits and educational expenses,
  7. The market value estimation of knowledge based on experience, etc.

It appeared that the human capital theory provided the answer to several, previously unsolved issues of the economic sciences. The major lack of these – otherwise significant, especially regarding their basic research value – scientific efforts is that they have tried modelling, formalizing economic processes – listed above – by mathematical methods, which are theoretically unclarified and therefore the possibility of their application is not sufficient.[4]

If it wer not true, these highly financed and significant researches could provide resource for solving the issues described in the White Book.

Remaining unsolved issues of the human capital indicators in the R&D

  1. The forst issue in solving the described problem is related to the measurement methodology and the establishment of the eindicators of the expenses of human capital investment. The situation is paradox, because it would also be necessary to calculate with the return on the expenses of human capital investment, its efficiency, etc., but calculation methods and indicators are not available.
  2. Therefore the formal mathematical models, that appear to be precise, can not be applied, they can not respond to the requirements of the EU guidelines in terms of application potential.
  3. They can not be used for the definition and planning of the long-term economic growth investment policy and strategy based on human capital.
  4. The „life long-learning” expenses and efficiency can not be measured by these models.
  5. They can not be applied for planning the efficiency of the social expenses necessary for the improvement of the quality of life of the society and its citizens, nor can they be used for planning the efficiency and the economic function and the operation of the healthcare services; therefore they are not useful for the maintenance and operation of the human capital.[5]
  6. They can not be applied in terms of establishing the active employment assets – different from the traditional employment – of a society and economy based on knowledge.
  7. They do not bring any useful suggestions in terms of the utilization of the knowledge of the increasing proportion of inactive population (eg: knowledge recycling” methods) in order for the adaptation of the employment tools to be possible.
  8. As a consequence, we suggest the tasks described in the „A Proposal” part to be performed in order to clarify the social and economical strategies and policies of the EU. (see page 5).

As the human capital measurement methods are not established and clarified, the corporate practice also applies heterogenous, costly and limited technology for the improvement of the use of knowledge capital.

These techniques, spread in the corporate culture, are applied and known by the following names:

  1. Knowledge Creation
  2. Knowledge Engineering

vCreative Innovation

  1. Knowledge Retriewal
  2. Knowledge Dicovery
  3. Knowledge Acquisition
  4. Business Intelligence
  5. Knowledge Flows
  6. Knowledge Transfer
  7. Knowledge Exchanges etc.

A Proposal

For the research and development on human capital indicators, the related measurement methods and their application

  1. Mathematically formal, exact development of the measurement methods for continuous measurement of the human capital investments. The method is estabilshed at an applicable level, published in short in the publication of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office.[6]
  2. Establishment of a technique, a method for the measurement of the human capital investment, applicable retrospectively, as well. The basics for the method ensuring the temporal comparativeness of continuous human capital investments (eg: the comparative analysis of human capital investments between 1920 and 1998) have been published in the publication of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office.[7]
  3. As described in Chapter 5 of the White Book, scientific modelling of the amortisation of the human capital investment, research and development of amortisation methods and techniques.[8] Experimental application of the amortization model in corporate calculations. We have published the experimental, calculation methods and their application fields as a summary of several research results.[9]
  4. Efficiency study of the virtual amortisation model of the human capital as an alternative to the corporate taxes and contributions.
  5. Financing models of the reproduction of human capital as a consistent alternative (reform) to the current financing models, considerig the virtual amortisation model of human capital.  
  6. Alternative, organizational and institutional opportunities, new models of the financing of reproduction of human capital (considering the analogue bank financing

system of capital investments and the usefulness of its experiences). Eg: based on the previously elaborated corporate amortisation models of human capital the establishment of the virtual model of a Human Capital Investment Bank.

  1. The amortisation models of human capital and the additional financing opportunities of the healthcare system, the modification (replacement) of the healthcare contributions, realization of R&D tasks.
  2. The amortisation models of human capital and their theoretical application possibilities in the frames of the financial laws.
  3. Elaboration and research of the theoretical fundaments of the property issues related to human capital, elaboration of alternatives and their practical consequences.
  4. Potential impacts of the models elaborated for the property issues of human capital on the labour laws.[10]
  5. Necessary changes of employment rules and regulations as a result of the dominant economical role of human capital in the market economy.[11]
  6. Possible models of the dominant economical role of human capital and the increase of its efficiency, as the potential reserves of the long-term economic growth.
  7. Elaboration of a monitoring system not requiring additional human capital investment, using the existing knowledge capital of the inactive population; elaboration of alternative employment methods and assets.
  8. Analysis of the measurable impacts of the alternative – that isusing the knowledge capital outside of employment – active employment-political assets and their institutional framework projected on the life quality of the inactive population, the sociopolitical practices of the state and the mental and physical health of the population

Our proposal is based on a more than two-years of experience in the research of the indicators and measurement methods of the human capital and in modelling its macroeconomic and corporate application

We could contribute to the establishment of the EU strategy defined in the White Book by supporting further R & D work, in the framework of a multidisciplinary academic cooperation, and by further elaborating the economic theory and methodology of the human capital.  

[1] In.: White Book About Education. Education and learning. 1996. Chapter 5, page 59  (Hungarian translation and emphais by author).
[2]Ibid.: page 61
[3]Petty, Smith, Thünen, Engel, Giffen, Marshall, and others
Theodor W. ShultzInvestment in Human Capital, KJK 1983,
Jacob MincerSchooling, Experience, and Earnings, Columbia UP, 1974
Gary S. Becker: Human capital, Univ. of Chicago Press, 1975. etc.
[4]If we consider the training and education costs as investments into human capital we consider that, similarly to physical capital, the amount of capital can be measured by the costs of production, while the profit can be measured bycost-benefit analysis. Therefore the traditional theory on capital can be applied to human capital, as well.
[5] Without which the training and educational costs would appear as deficit in terms of investment costs (eg: high death rate of active-age population, economic losses produced by sick-leave, etc.)
[6] Lakatos, Gyula: Costs of Human Capital Investments in the Hungarian National Economy.
    In.: Economy and Statistics (GÉS) 2001/4., Budapest, p. 32-47. (Publication of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office).
[7] Lakatos, Gyula: Methodological Experiments to Define the Increase of Human Capital in Hungary between 1920 and 1996.
In.:Economy and Statistics (GÉS), Budapest, 2002. 10., p. 27-38. (Publication of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office).
[8] Lakatos, Gyula: Changes of the Role of Human Capital in Corporate Economy.
   In.: Economy and Statistics (GÉS) 2001/6., Budapest. (Publication of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office)
[9] In.: Lakatos, Gyula: The Human Capital. Publisher: Balassi, 2005.
[10] Lakatos, Gyula: The Human Capital. Publisher: Balassi Kiadó. 201-204. oldal.
[11] Supra Innovative Human Capital Recovery by External Knowledge Recycling. Knowledge Recycling with Human Monitoring System and Analysis.
In.: Lakatos, Gyula: The Human Capital. Publisher: Balassi Kiadó. Budapest, 2005. p. 303-313.